Thursday, 1 September 2011

Muslim Physician's Sittah Daruriyyah

The Muslim Scientists by Mohammad Yasin Owadally
Edited by Abu Tahir
Published by A.S. Noordeen
GPO Box 10066
50704 Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 4023-6003
Fax: 4021-3675

4. The Muslim Scientists
By Mohammad Yasin Owadally. This book describes the contributions of Muslim scholars in the
field of science. 2003. 88 pp. 983-065-00-2. RM 14.00

Bought from Saba Islamic Media (RM14.00)
Printed by: Percetakan Zafar Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur
(C) Mohamad Yasin Owadally
First Published 1424/2003
Second Print 1425/2005
ISBN 983-065-100-2

My book summary ...

These names are mentioned: Prophet Musa a.s., Allah SWT, Prophet Muhammad s.a.w., Jabir reported ..., Abu Darda once said ..., al-Ghazali's Ihya Ulum Iddin, Muslim Ahadith Kitab as-Salam,

Divine Law (Shari'ah) on personal hygiene, dietary habits, ablutions, etc affecting body parts related to medicine.

Islamic medicine and allied subjects, pharmacology, surgery etc drew their spiritual sustenance from the message of Islam and received their nourishment from the rich soil of Graeco-Alexandrian, Indian and Persian medicine.

In the Muslim medical world, the physicians, philosophers and other masters in traditional sciences are called "Hakim".

Al-Walid I - created the first Islamic hospital in 1 AH (7th CE Century).

Harun al-Rashid - established the first fully equipped hospital with the required facilities of its time in Baghdad in 2nd AH (8th CE century). It was a centre of medical activities and Islamic medicine. It served as a model for numerous other hospitals in Baghdad. The hospital was headed by a famous physician, Yuhanna ibn Masawayh.

Adud al-Dawlah (a Persian ruler) - built the famous Adudi hospital in 4th AH (10th CE century).

Hospital builders in Muslim cities were Muslim males.

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi - built hospitals around Baghdad in Iraq.

Nur al-Din al-Zanji - built hospitals in Damascus and in Aleppo (Aleppo is an ancient city in Syria) in 6th AH (12th CE century).

Salah al-Din Ayyubi - constructed the Nasiri hospital in Cairo in Egypt (Cairo is Kahirah).

Mansur Qala'un - built the Mansuri hospital in 7th AH (13th CE century) from an old Fatimid palace. It had beds for several thousand patients. Different rooms were specified for various illnesses. There were separate sections for males and females. The hospital also had lecture halls, a library, a mosque and administrative quarters.

Muslim physicians believe that in order to have good health, 6 external factors are essential, referred to as the "Six necessities" (Sittah Daruriyyah). They are air, food, rest and movement, emotional rest, exertion and retention.

My overall response to this book ...

I think we need to work out some details of the contents of this book, especially those touching on medicine and health. Sittah Daruriyyah is Arabic for the 6 necessities of good health. Maybe we can expand on that.

AL-WALID I (705-715 AD/86-96 AH)

Al walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father Abd al-Malik, and was an effective ruler. His reign was marked by endless successions of conquests east and west. He reconquered parts of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire and moved on into Carthage and across to the west of North Africa. Then in 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber armies. By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control. This would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (in 736, they were stopped in their expansion into Europe south of Tours, France). In the east, Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 712—under Al-Walid, the caliphate empire stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India. 

Like his father, Al-Walid continued to allow Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef free rein, and his trust in Al-Hajjaj paid off with the successful conquests of Transoxiana and Sindh (now Pakistan). Musa ibn Nusayr and his retainer Tariq ibn Ziyad conquered Al-Andalus (now Spain). Al-Hajjaj was responsible for picking the generals who led the successful eastern campaigns. Al-Walid's brother Salamah, advanced against the Byzantines and into Adharbayjan (now Azerbaijan). 

Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari describes how Qutayba ibn Muslim, Khurasan's governor, led forces extending the caliphate to the east. Qutayba campaigned in most, if not all, years of this reign, conquering Samarkand, advancing into Farghana and sending envoys to China. 

Al-Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in Ummayad era. It was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Iberia. His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power.

Al-Walid instituted Arabic as the only official language of the empire. He decreed that all administration was to be done only in Arabic. It was this move that cemented the primacy of Arabic language and culture in the Islamic world.

Al-Walid also began the first great building projects of Islam, the famous of which is the Great Mosque of Damascus or simply the Umayyad Mosque, one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. Located in one of the holiest sites in the old city of Damascus, it is of great architectural importance. He also build the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Baitul Makdis/Baitul Muqadis (Jerusalem). He also renovated the Prophet Muhammad's s.a.w. mosque (Masjid Nabawi) in Madinah.
The long history of Islamic architecture really begins with al-Walid. This is also the period in which Islamic court culture begins to germinate. With the caliph as a patron, artists and writers begin to develop a new, partly secular culture based on Islamic ideas.

Al-Walid developed a welfare system, built hospitals and educational institutions.
Al-Walid I created the first Islamic hospital in 1 AH (7th CE Century).

He was also known for his own personal piety, and many stories tell of his continual reciting of the Qur'an and the large feasts he hosted for those fasting during Ramadan. He was married to Umm Banin bint Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan ibn Hakam.

Al-Walid was buried in Bab-us-saghir cemetery in Damascus. His grave is still present to this date.



Hospital in Damascus (built 706)

The first hospital building was built in Damascus in 706 by Al-Walid, the Ummayad Caliph. It was to cater for all sorts of patients (including the blind and lepers). Its equipment, staff and organisation, served as model for other hospitals to follow.

Hospitals in Baghdad
Both Caliphs Harun al-Rashid and Al-Mansur had hospitals built in Baghdad.

Hospitals in Cairo
In Cairo, the first hospital was established at al-Fustat by Ibn Tulun, governor of the city in 872.
By the 12th century, the hospital had become a very advanced institution, witness al-Nuri hospital, built in 1156 by Nur al-Din Zangi, a hospital where patients were well fed, and cared for, and where there was a large library for teaching. 
In Cairo, in 1285, Sultan Qalaun al-Mansur built the largest of all hospitals, described by Durant. Within a spacious quadrangular enclosure four buildings rose around a courtyard adorned with arcades and cooled with fountains and brooks. There were separate wards for diverse diseases and for convalescents; laboratories, a dispensary, out-patient clinics, diet kitchens, baths, a library, a chapel, a lecture hall, and particularly pleasant accommodations for the insane.

'Treatment was given gratis to men and women, rich and poor, slave and free; and a sum of money was disbursed to each convalescent on his departure, so that he need not at once return to work. The sleepless were provided with soft music, professional story-tellers, and perhaps books of history.'

(This is an excellent website on the history of Islamic medicine.)


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